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The LP Record | return to menu bar

Hi, my name is Steven Feldman. I created this page on October 21, 1998 to make known my search for the 1984 release of the soundtrack to the Paramount Pictures film, THE KEEP, as performed by Tangerine Dream. I saw a copy of THE KEEP LP on, I think, the Wednesday of the week it came out (a few months before the Firestarter soundtrack was released, which I bought as a promo on August 11, 1984) in the Strawberries Records store in downtown Providence, Rhode Island, in the back left corner of the store, to the right of the stockroom. I picked the record up, turned it over, and for the first time, saw a picture of Molasar. I was shocked. I had collected comic books for about 15 years, and the monster face on the back cover of THE KEEP soundtrack was a lot like that of Darkseid, from Jack Kirby's Fourth World titles (Mister Miracle, New Gods, Forever People, and Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen [my favorite]), published by DC Comics 1971-1972, which I'd bought fresh off the newsstands when they first came out (yes, I'm that old).

Since Darkseid was one of my favorite comic characters, it was a real surprise to see a movie character that had copied his appearance even more faithfully than Marvel Comics' Thanos (introduced in 1973; based on the Fourth World characters Metron and Darkseid) had. This is one of the reasons that I am adamant about having seen THE KEEP on LP in 1984: it had a big impact on me because of my familiarity with the Darkseid character. And I am not alone in my thinking that Molasar looks like Darkseid. Stéphane Piter, a French monster make-up artist who has a Keep website of his own, thinks so, too. Stéphane created and placed on his Keep site a drawing of Molasar autographing a picture of Darkseid in front of the keep.

by Jack Kirby
finished-pencil drawing, by Jack Kirby
Metron and Darkseid
by Jack Kirby
from New Gods #7
by Jack Kirby
detail of the cover to New Gods #2
Desaad, Darkseid
by Jack Kirby
from Forever People #6
Darkseid as Molasar
by Stéphane Piter
pic of Molasar autographing a pic of Darkseid, by Stéphane Piter
146k gif   |   61k jpg

As well as being surprised at virtually seeing Darkseid on the back cover of a Tangerine Dream album, I was taken aback that three of the song titles didn't seem to be in languages I understood. They seemed to be in Latin and German (as it turns out, they were in Latin: "Puer Natus est Nobis," German: "Arx Allemande," and Italian: "Canzone").

Also -- and I don't recall anyone else ever having mentioned this -- I don't think the record was on the Virgin label, or only on the Virgin label. I remember seeing a combination of the Ariola label and something else. It was a pairing of Ariola and Virgin, or a type of Ariola I hadn't seen before, or a pairing of the Ariola logo with yet another logo. I don't think the other logo was Hansa, but it might have been. Maybe it was Aris (short for ARiola International Services), which has the title Ariola as part of its logo, as shown online at http://www.discogs.com/label/Aris. Anyways, it was a label or label combination that I had never seen before. I am relating this aspect of the record for the first time now, on July 10, 2012.

the Virgin Records logo
the Ariola Records logo
the Ariola/Hansa logo
  the Hansa Records logo
the Aris (ARiola International Services) logo

My job as a dishwasher at the downtown Providence French restaurant Pot au Feu didn't afford me much money at the time, but I frequented record stores even when I didn't have the funds to buy anything. I was friends with Mark Angevine, the manager of this particular Strawberries, by virtue of having met him through comic collecting years ago, and he often held albums for me behind the cash register for a few days until I came in to pay for them. When I asked Mark to hold onto THE KEEP soundtrack for me until Friday, however, he was busy talking with his store's distributor, so he said, "It won't go anywhere," and resumed his conversation. I presumed then that he said what he said because the film had had negative press and he thought that there wouldn't be much demand for the record, but in hindsight, it's clear that he didn't want to be bothered while attending to what he felt were more important matters. Anyways, the LP wasn't there when I went back on Friday. I subsequently called Mark, and he said that the Strawberries in Lincoln (also in Rhode Island) had one, but when he called to ask them to hold it for me, they said that it had sold.

In 1986, Tom Farnsworth, the owner of the Providence independent record shop Tom's Tracks, told me that "a big Tangerine Dream collector" that he knows came in and said that about 300 copies of THE KEEP soundtrack had wrongly been pressed and distributed to record stores before being recalled. A few years later, I placed an ad for the record in Fangoria magazine and two ads in Goldmine record collector's magazine, one of which prompted a response from someone called Peter Grygorcewicz, who -- for real -- turned out to be the biggest Tangerine Dream collector in the world. He said that he contacted each and every person who he ever saw mention Tangerine Dream even once. One time, over the phone, I got Peter to admit that he knew that copies of THE KEEP LP from 1984 did indeed exist. Peter passed away at the age of 34 on August 19, 1989, and the specifics went with him.

Oh, snap!

So, basically, an LP and a cassette (and maybe even a CD) were accidentally released to record stores for a few days in 1984 before the record company became aware and instituted a recall. Apparently, there was a conflict between Paramount Pictures and the record company involving the property's copyright, but 200-300 copies of the album and an unknown quantity of the cassette (and CD?) were pressed and sold at record stores before Paramount found out about the pressings, put a halt to them, and had the record company recall and destroy the remaining units. Ever since then, Paramount and Tangerine Dream's leader Edgar Froese have claimed that no such pressing ever occurred (and that therefore no recall ever occurred), but I know different. Never doubt the obstinacy of someone with Asperger's Syndrome (like myself) who doesn't give a crap *how* many people in the world say they're wrong, because it's just par for the course that NT's are clueless in some respects.

It is the recalled 1984 version of THE KEEP soundtrack for which I am looking. There are those who say that this album never, in fact, came out -- that I am chasing a phantom -- but I saw the album the day it came out at my local record store and held it in my hands, and eight other people on the Internet have told me a similar story. Six of them saw the album in 1984, while two saw the cassette tape. Of those from whom I still have archived e-mails, TD fan Erik Sanborn in 1993 said he'd held the LP in his hand, TD Fan Pete Penfold in 1998 said he'd seen the LP, Jim Jordan in 1998 said he'd held the LP his hand, and Brian Gray Stewart and Stevie McRae both said in 2000 that they'd seen the LP. In 1998, Set Sutekh said he'd "held that little cassette in my hot little hands several times over a month" at a local music store in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

The Dream cover
the cover of The Dream Lives On! by Alan Vincent Michaels
156k | 207k
Read it and weep, haters:
quoted text from Alan Vincent Michaels about seeing The Keep LP
99k | 137k
The Dream page 2
page 2 of The Dream Lives On! by Alan Vincent Michaels
379k | 752k

According to musician Elias Granillo, Jr., one noteworthy person who held a copy of the 1984 Keep soundtrack LP in his hands was Alan Vincent Michaels, author of The Dream Lives On!: The Unofficial Collector's Guide to the Music of Tangerine Dream (1990), which just so happens to be the first book ever published about Tangerine Dream. On page 2 The Dream Lives On!, Michaels writes, "While certain soundtracks and albums, such as Legend and Sorcerer, still have not been released on CD (and The Keep may never be released at all -- though, I personally recall seeing the album), the fact that most have been is a strong testimonial to Tangerine Dream's music, and to the various record companies' beliefs in the band's staying power and the devotion of the fans." Voices in the Dunes: The Tangerine Dream Worldwide Discography, by Rolf Sonnemann, Peter Stoeferle, and Matt Hargreaves (1991), was the second book about Tangerine Dream to see print, but no one therein even mentions the LP as being aprocryphal. I guess they were caught napping on that one -- or maybe someone told them not to say anything about it, wink wink.

In 1993, a TD fan named Scott Bodarky claimed that a friend of a friend sold a copy to a Japanese collector for $100. In 2009, a TD fan named Nick Adams said that another TD fan once showed him a copy of the 1984 KEEP soundtrack LP. So, there is at least one case where someone is in fact in possession of this soundtrack but has decided not to broadcast the fact openly. Why this is, I don't know. Maybe they get a charge out of being in a very exclusive club by having something and not sharing it. Such is the case with the Bruce Lee collectors who own rare footage from early cuts of films that are no longer in circulation yet won't contribute to restored versions of the films.

Kit Rae logo
In 2005, acclaimed fantasy collectibles designer and musician Kit Rae posted a lengthy article named "The Keep Score by Tangerine Dream: Strange Obsessions for the Music from an Obscure 1983 Supernatural Horror Film," which he updated in June 2013. As it stands now, in its 2013 version, the article spans four pages with a total of 89 screens-worth of material. The passage relevant to this site appears near the bottom of the first page. It reads: "I remember seeing the soundtrack album myself in 1984, with the same art on the front as the movie poster and Laser Disk, and I specifically remember some of the track titles, which later appeared on the eventual official TDI release in 1997. I rarely bought an album the first time I saw it, but I did go back the following week to buy it and it was nowhere to be found. I am not the only person to remember it. A similar account is told here." In case you were wondering, the "here" link leads directly to the page you're reading at this very moment, i.e. Molasar's Homepage.

In November of 2013, Kit Rae posted a photo which might be of the 1984 Keep LP, saying, "The supposed album cover art for the original 1984 release of THE KEEP, sent to me by a person who claimed to have been in posession of a copy. It looks similar to what I remember seeing in mid 1984, although without seeing the back cover there is no way to verify if this is legitimate or just another bootleg."

the alleged 1984 LP cover
photo of the alleged cover to the 1984 Keep LP

One Track Found, Ten or Eleven to Go | return to menu bar | skip to The Music section

On October 29, 2013, Stéphane Piter, the French make-up artist with a Keep site of his own, sent me an mp3 of a version of "The Night in Romania" that I hadn't heard before, and intriguingly, it came from a vinyl source, because significant opening record sizzle is clearly audible, as well as the sound of a tonearm descending and lifting again (so as to make sure that only one track was recorded). Stéphane had acquired this track from a collector on November 13, 2004 but didn't share it until the 30th anniversary of the film's release (December 16, 2013) drew near because he doubted that the track was really what it seemed to be. I guess he thought if it seemed too good to be true, it probably was. Since a studio version of this tune had never been bootlegged and only appeared on the 1997 and 1999 TDI CDs, it didn't take me long to compare the two versions. Rather quicky, in fact, I concluded that it came from the 1984 LP. Granted, I hoped that it did, but I really thought it to be the case.

Kit Rae analyzed the sound and provisionally agreed with me. On December 11, 2013, he wrote, "The sound wave and peaks for the first part match the TDI version. You can lay one on top of the other and they are identical ... except, the music for this version actually starts a few seconds BEFORE the TDI version does, so it is longer. The sound wave of the ending music does not not match or line up with any known source, even when speed and pitch correction are applied. When speed corrected it is close to the film version (the end of the reunion scene), but not exact." Kit noted that this version "has the same ending chords as the version heard in end of the scene where Cuza, Eva, and Mihail meet in THE KEEP, but there is no drum beat in the music prior to that in the film version, where there is on your track."

The person from whom Stéphane obtained the track had sent only the one track from the LP, yet had included a JPG of its cover. Stéphane's contact had obtained the track as part of a sampler cassette sent from a Japanese collector, and knowing how rare the track was, he had since transferred it to mp3 format. This contact of Stéphane's thought that the album the mp3 came from was Japanese, and that it may have been a promo-only release, but he couldn't recall and he couldn't locate the image file of the record's label he had had on his computer anymore. He noted that the label it was on is Sunday Records, its catalogue number was SUN-65275, the record's label was white with the logo of Sunday Records, and that it *might* have said "FOR PROMOTIONAL USE ONLY" on it.

the 2001 photo of the 2001 LP cover
photo of the alleged cover to the 2001 Keep LP

I recognized the JPG of the track's cover right away, and when I searched my hard drive for it, I found that I had saved my copy on June 28th, 2001. The pic in question is not of a Japanese release but a vinyl bootleg from Italy or France. I knew where to obtain this LP back in 2001, but at the time, I had assumed that it was just another boot taken from the usual sources, not the music off the actual 1984 LP. In 2001, a whole bunch of bootleg CDs of THE KEEP came out out, and every single time, it turned out that I seemed to find out about it after just about everybody else had. When I saw the European webpage with the bootleg LP, I thought it was pathetic how now there were even *vinyl* bootlegs of THE KEEP, but I figured that the completist collectors out there would buy the thing, and I was intimidated by the price. I translated the site's text with online software (poorly; this was 2001, remember), and after converting the currency, found the price to be something like $25 plus overseas postage, and that made me not order it. I really thought that the deep-pocketed, completist Tangerine Dream collectors would buy it, and since I always seemed to be the last one to find out about Keep bootlegs, I figured *somebody* or even *more* than one person I knew would buy it, so why should *I* blow close to $40 for what I had assumed were the first eleven or twelve tracks from the TDI CD put onto vinyl?

Come November of 2013, however, it seems that none of the collectors I know bought that 2001 LP bootleg of the 1984 Keep LP, and most were not even aware that it existed, to begin with. I figured that some TD fanboy or other would have bought one, but I had never seen the item turn up anywhere since. In fact, I found it not only to not be listed among bootlegs, but no reference to it turned up in current web searches and no JPG of it was online. Maybe it's because everyone else thought the same thing I did: buying all the Keep bootleg CDs is one thing, but buying a bootleg *LP* is silly. How could we have known then that the bootleg LP was the *only* bootleg with the real music from the LP -- that this *particular* bootleg was of the 1984 *vinyl*, not the leaked studio tapes everyone was used to?

"The Night in Romania" YouTube slideshow (click image to view)
YouTube video slideshow with the 1984 LP version of The Night in Romania
3:07 video   |   100k jpg

I think the 2001 LP is probably a re-pressing of a copy of the real 1984 LP, because the version of "The Night in Romania" the Japanese collector associated it with is from none other than the 1984 Keep LP. I made a video of this version of the song and uploaded it to YouTube on December 16th, 2013 (the 30th Anniversary of the release of the film) to share with the world so everybody will finally know that the 1984 LP is real and that there is a second place to obtain the entirety of the music from the 1984 LP: the 2001 LP -- which is something almost nobody knew before. Knowing that something exists creates the ability to look for it. Since people know now that both the 1984 and 2001 LPs are real, they'll look for them rather than not.

The existence of an alternate studio version of "The Night in Romania" from a vinyl source demonstrates what I've known all along: some people are selfish and don't like to share. It harkens back to the old conspiratorial, "I'll show you something if you promise not to tell." Edgar Froese, Paramount and Virgin Records have legal reasons for their denials, but self-styled upper echelon Tangerine Dream fanboys are guilty of naked one-upmanship (certainly an interesting confluence of terms). Hopefully, the unearthing of this track will provoke a contest whereby brownie points are accrued by putting additional tracks from the 1984 Keep LP online. And whoever puts the entirety of the album online wins the Top Prize. After all, vanity and ego are chiefly to blame for it having taken 30 years for this album to be proven to exist. Shame on those responsible. And thanks ever so much to those who teased me for being on a pointless quest for 30 years.

I bet most if not all of the people who bought the 2001 bootleg LP back in 2001 never played it, so they never realized what it really was! Now that people are aware that this 2001 LP has the original music from the 1984 LP, maybe it will turn up, because people will know what to look for. And maybe someone will put it on a filesharing site, or will put a copy of it up for sale on eBAY, or something like that. With the deep inroads into society blazed by the internet, I think fewer and fewer examples of such selfish people as the exclusionary Tangerine Dream collectors who blocked access to the LP and its music will exist by the day. Most Tangerine Dream fans are in their 50s and 60s (I myself am 55) and are the sort of old-time folks (a paradox, given that they like electronic music) who don't behave the same way that young people with filesharing and cell phones do. For the young, it is very *very* easy to share -- and they *especially* like to share things that are *not supposed to be* shared! That gives us hope! :)

F. Paul Wilson
photo of author F. Paul Wilson

After telling F. Paul Wilson (the author of the book version of THE KEEP) about the 1984 LP version of "The Night in Romania" that I'd put on YouTube, he told me in an e-mail dated December 17, 2013:
I too saw the vinyl album. I was in a Sam Goody's at the Jersey Shore and I picked up the only copy they had. I looked at it and had such bad feelings about the film (which had already been pulled from theaters) that I shoved it back into the pile and walked away. I felt very little connection to the film and none to the music.
Kit Rae had a similar quote from Wilson, and after performing a web search, found that it originated from Wilson's website http://www.repairmanjack.com in a post dated July 13, 2004, which reads:
I do not have it. I saw it in Sam Goody shortly after the release of the film but I didn't buy it -- too pissed.
It's surprising and ironic that after fifteen years of intermittent correspondence between F. Paul Wilson and myself, I only now learn that we two are likely to be the only two people known to have not only held a copy of the 1984 Keep LP in their hands, but to have seen a long ending of the film on TV, too! If I had known in 2004 that Wilson had held a copy of the 1984 Keep LP in his hands like I had, it would have gone far in subduing the heckling Tangerine Dream fanboys who were telling me that I'm full of baloney and had only hallucinated that I'd seen an LP in 1984 for the past nine years. Whenever I had e-mailed Wilson in the past, it had been about the extended TV versions of THE KEEP, never about my quest for the 1984 vinyl, because I didn't want to reveal to him that I was a TD fanboy, thinking that he'd be dismissive of me if he knew. So much for subtlety.

Peter Grygorcewicz
photo of Peter Grygorcewicz

On Wednesday, Apr 23, 2014, Paul Grygorcewicz, brother of Peter, contacted me via e-mail and had the following to say:

Hi Steve,

I was just on your website. quite impressed with your effort on the Keep. why I am writing you is that I saw mentioned in your article phone conversations with my twin brother Peter. this is 25 years since his passing. [. . .] I have a seen the different extended ending of the keep movie. I remember longtime ago Peter told me about the album the keep in the store. I didn't have the money at the time to purchase it so I told him to put it back. what a big mistake that was.

kind Regards, Paul

I called Paul the next day, and over the phone, he provided me with some further information. Peter and Paul saw a used copy of the 1984 Keep LP at the In Your Ear! used record store at 957 Commonwealth Avenue in Boston in 1985, but Peter put it back because it had a scratch on it and Paul didn't have the money at the time. The record was priced at about $8.00. Peter majored in psychology and sociology. He was a temp, not a permanent driver with the MBTA, and drove buses in Wilmington, Reading, and Cambridge. He died at age 34. Paul built and designed machinery for Gillette for 35 years. Grygorcewicz is pronounced "gregor SE witch."

This is the first time I've heard of someone encountering a used copy of the LP. So, all you hecklers who teased me about not having the money at the time, it seems that the very same happened to the Grygorcewicz brothers!

Possible reason the Keep LP was pulled

pic made for the video
fudged pic of the 2001 LP cover made for the video

I think I've finally figured out why the Keep soundtrack was pulled: somebody at Virgin, maybe Richard Branson himself, said, "Hey, you're not telling me that not only is the tune from the opening credits not on the record, but the tune from the end credits isn't there, either, are you? Please tell me you're not. And there are only four tunes on the record that are actually in the film? And eight that are not? What are you, out of your tree? I want that record pulled. There's no way we can have that out there." And so it went. Really, can you blame them?

There were probably 12 tracks on the 1984 LP, yet only three and a half of them contain music that actually wound up being used in the film. Seriously. They are "Puer Natus est Nobis," "The Night in Romania," and "Canzone," while "Supernatural Accomplice" constitutes the half. Tell me you wouldn't be disappointed if you'd seen the film and liked it, weren't a fan of Tangerine Dream per se, then bought the record, just to find only three whole relevant songs! Even for TD, that's an excessively low amount of tunes from a film turning up on a soundtrack release! Three and a half out of twelve. And the opening and closing tracks are not to be found. I'll bet that's why Virgin reneged on letting TD release the album on January 15th, 1998, too!

I think the persistence of the rights issue raises more questions than it answers. It's clear that royalty concerns caused the opening credits tune ("Mea Culpa" by Brian Eno and David Byrne) and the end credits tune ("Walking in the Air" by Howard Blake) to be deleted from the track list, but what other rights issues could possibly remain that would cause a thirty-year blockage? Could it be that "rights" is a smokescreen for a lawsuit filed by Edgar suing Mann's production company (if not Paramount itelf) for using material from Rubycon, Logos, White Eagle, and Kamikaze 1989 without permission? If so, why is Edgar the party trying to release THE KEEP?

The Music | return to menu bar

Easily Obtainable
Rubycon (1975)
CD covers to Rubycon (1975)
10k | 12k
White Eagle (1982)
CD covers to White Eagle (1982)
15k | 20k
Logos (1982)
CD covers to Logos (1982)
20k | 20k
Antique Dreams (2000)
CD cover to Antique Dreams (2000) and CD cover to Antique Dream Land (2007)
10k | 18k  393k

For those who don't know, a lot of the music featured in THE KEEP is on the 1982 Tangerine Dream live album Logos, specifically from 20:16-23:45 of "Logos Part One" and 23:45-30:06 of Logos Part Two." It is on YouTube in its entirety. The November 15, 1982 rehearsal at the Berlin I.C.C. (variously called Croydon 1982, Logotypes, and Logos Type) contains live versions of some of the music that appeared in THE KEEP. It is on YouTube, too. Other sources of music used in THE KEEP are the first 5:31 of "Rubycon Pt. II" from the 1975 Rubycon album, the first 2:44 of "Mojave Plan" from the 1982 White Eagle album, and the first 34 seconds of "Flying Kamikaze" from the 1982 Edgar Froese solo soundtrack album to the Rainer Werner Fassbinder film Kamikaze 1989, which was made available as a digital download album in 2007. Edgar Froese is the founder and leader of Tangerine Dream.

Yet one more Tangerine Dream track that appears in THE KEEP is a variation of "Moorland," which is the B-side to the 1983 "Daydream" 45rpm 7" single from the German television show Tatort. Both sides of this 7" single later appeared on the 1986 compilation album Schimanskis Tatort Hits. Still later, "Moorland" appeared in remixed form both on the 2000 Tangerine Dream compilation album Antique Dreams and on the 2007 digital download album Antique Dream Land. In the film, this music is used to accompany Glaeken's awakening and journey by sea toward Romania. It is one of my most favorite Tangerine Dream tunes ever.

Not-so-Easily Obtainable
Kamikaze 1989 soundtrack
by Edgar Froese (1982)
CD cover to Kamikaze 1989 soundtrack (1982) and cover to Kamikaze 1989 soundtrack (1982) digital download
17k | 28k  378k
45rpm 7" single (1983)
the front of the sleeve from the Daydream/Moorland 45rpm 7-inch single (1983)
Schimanskis Tatort Hits
compilation album (1986)
LP record cover to the Schimanskis Tatort Hits compilation album (1986)
329k  595k
The Keep Limited Edition
(1997, then 1999)
CD covers to The Keep Limited Edition (1997 and 1999)
12k | 16k

In November of 1997, TDI (Tangerine Dream International) released a limited edition of 150 CDs of THE KEEP soundtrack, which they sold at a British concert. In 1999, TDI released a limited edition of 300 CDs of THE KEEP soundtrack as part of its "Millennium Booster" set, and then an additional 100 more copies of the "Millennium Booster" version of the CD were sold at concerts afterwards. These two editions were pressed and designed differently, but contain the same music. Scandalously, only three and a half tracks on the TDI CDs contain music that actually appears in the film. They are Track 1: "Puer Natus est Nobis (Gloria theme)", Track 6: "The Night in Romania," and Track 7: "Canzone," with the half being Track 12: "Supernatural Accomplice," which contains variants of material in the film. For a web page that compares the two TDI CDs -- as well as unofficial CDs containing music from THE KEEP -- go to http://www.rutka.de/TD/keep.htm. I am not looking for nor interested in the 1997 and 1999 TDI CDs, nor any of the unoffical CDs that appeared after 1984. It is artifacts dated 1984 (or possibly 1983) for which I am looking.

If you have a copy of the 1984 KEEP soundtrack LP, please contact me. I will pay for a CD-R of it. The same goes for copies of the 1984 cassette tape, and for copies of a commercially-pressed CD, if such exists (CDs began being released in 1983).

Most importantly, I am interested in photographs (or photocopies) of the front and back covers and playable media of the 1984 version of THE KEEP soundtrack by Tangerine Dream in any medium, be it LP, tape, or CD. It is my fervent wish to upload these images for all to see.

The Plot Explained | return to menu bar

Why is this page called "Molasar's Homepage"? "Molasar" is the name of the bad guy in the 1984 Paramount Pictures film THE KEEP, directed by Michael Mann, while the good guy (played by Scott Glenn) is named "Glaeken Trismegestus." It is all too easy to miss the short piece of dialog in which Dr. Cuza appears in the ground level of the keep with the talisman in hand, only to be admonished by his daughter, Eva. Verbatim, she says, "It [i.e. the talisman] belongs to Glaeken Trismegestus, not Molasar." These two characters are nowhere else so designated in the rest of the film.

In the film's source material, the novel The Keep, by F. Paul Wilson, published in 1981, the name Molasar is used only temporarily, before we learn his real name. Molasar's opponent calls himself Glenn (funny how an actor called Scott Glenn came to play him, isn't it?) but that is not really his name, and we never learn what it is. He is the last of what used to be many "Glaeken." It is explained, "The Glaeken were a fanatical sect that started as an arm of the Church in the Dark Ages." Magda (renamed Eva for the film) calls him Glenn in the book, but calls him Glaeken (that one time) in the movie.

Regular Ending
B & W still - from Regular Ending

Although it is a purposeful misdirection, the statement, "I am the Viscount Radu Molasar," appears in the book, and Michael Mann himself referred to "a character named "Roderick Molasar" in an interview with Harlan Kennedy for the article, "Castle 'Keep'," which appeared in the November/December 1983 issue of Film Comment, of all places, but neither of these references are relevant to the film itself.

Most people complain that the filmed version of The Keep is unintelligible, as if it were the second coming of Zardoz (a notoriously opaque film which makes complete sense once you read its novelization), but this is largely because there remain only 96 minutes of what was in the director's original 210 minute version. For example, Eva isn't so smitten with Glaeken that she jumps into bed with him right away, as the studio's cut of the film would have you think.

The Keep Handbook
of Production
color publicity still - of Eva and Glaeken in Keep

Back in 1983, the obscure aspects of the film were explained quite succinctly in the Synopsis (subtitled "Not for Publication") on page 6 of the promotional The Keep Handbook of Production Information, which is part of THE KEEP pressbook, but since it was never printed in a review, virtually no one knew about it. The two most revelatory passages are paragraphs two and five. Here they are:

Paragraph Two
...and Glaeken Trismegistos (SCOTT GLENN) is shocked awake on a rainy night. He pulls a strange case from under his bed and leaves the port he has spent his entire existence in and sets out across the Mediterranean through the Dardanelles into the Black Sea to the Keep. He has waited and drifted through ages and places watching in case one accident occurs. During that time he's lived near but could never be part of the world of men. He's simulated the experiences of men to see what it is they feel. And if he desires anything, it is to be human. Now what's been repressed within the keep has been released. And Glaeken Trismegistos, the Watchman, has been activated to perform his one function: he will destroy it. About what will happen to his afterwards, he has no idea.
Paragraph Five
Meanwhile, the village transforms into a nightmare. It's as if the repressed urges and desires of all the people manifest themselves in overt behavior.
See? Now everything makes sense. Kinda sorta. If more critics at the time had mixed elements from this synopsis into their reviews rather than just scoffing and ridiculing what they perceived to be a director's ostentation, hubris, and ambition, as they tend to with stylish genre films to this very day, the film wouldn't have bombed as badly is it did.

One of the defining aspects of Zardoz was the stentorian voice that emanated from the giant flying stone head (!) every time it spoke, and it wouldn't surprise me if that is where Michael Mann got the inspiration for the voice of Molasar, which is every bit as sonorous and impactful.

The Adversary Cycle | return to menu bar

American paperbacks, front
348k   672k
American paperbacks, back
324k   682k

I read the series of six books by medical doctor and author F. Paul Wilson that started with THE KEEP -- The Keep (1981), The Tomb (1984; briefly restored to its originally intended title, Rakoshi, in 2004), The Touch (1986), Reborn (1990), Reprisal (1991), and Nightworld (1992) -- which have come to be known collectively as The Adversary Cycle, and it was quite an experience. Originally, the first three books were not intended to be related, but Wilson's publisher gave the books' covers a similar look to create the appearance of a series. Shortly thereafter, the prolific Wilson shoehorned them all together by writing an enormous follow-up novel where the entity we here know as Molasar returns and attacks on a wider scale than ever before, but it was so long, Wilson's publisher made him chop it into three books. Hence, Reborn, Reprisal, and Nightworld.

Characters and situations from the second and third books, The Tomb and The Touch, don't figure in with the fourth and fifth books, Reborn and Reprisal, but the sixth book, Nightworld, combines them all. Molasar's name isn't really Molasar, but I don't want to explain why because it could ruin some of the fun for folks who want to read the books. I heartily recommend reading the first book in the series, The Keep. It stands on its own very well, so it's no biggie if you never read the sequels, but I feel compelled to say that the final book, Nightworld, is a quasi-Lovecraftian masterpiece and it's well worth reading the rest of the series to get to it. Make sure that you read the original version of Nightworld, not the 2012 version, because that version draws from occurrences in a series of fourteen other books which you have not read.

UK The Keep
two UK covers to The Keep; art by Steve Crisp
470k | 27k
UK The Tomb
two UK covers to The Tomb
112k | 119k
UK The Touch
two UK covers to The Touch
17k | 43k
UK Reborn
UK cover to Reborn; art by Steve Crisp
UK Reprisal
UK cover to Reprisal; art by Steve Crisp
48k | 26k
UK Nightworld
UK cover to Nightworld

Eighteen years after The Tomb (1984) first saw print, Wilson took its central character, Repairman Jack, and made a new series based on his exploits. Wilson wrote fourteen more Repairman Jack books in between The Tomb and Nightworld, starting with Legacies (1998), and ending with Fatal Error (2010) and The Dark at the End (2011), the latter two of which have Glaeken and Molasar in them. Fatal Error requires familiarity with prior Repairman Jack novels, and The Dark at the End incorporates plot threads from the entire Repairman Jack series and the entire Adversary Cycle series, with the possible exception of The Touch. As planned, Wilson retrofitted the 2011 version of Nightworld to incorporate all the Repairman Jack stories that were published after the original version of Nightworld. If you only read the Adversary Cycle and not the Repairman Jack series, make absolutely sure that you read the pre-2012 version of Nightworld, which was first published in 1992.

My own personal favorite of the Adversary Cycle series is The Touch (which was expanded in The 2009 reprint edition to include the supporting story "Dat Tay Vao"), probably because of its humanitarian angle and because the lead character, like the author of the story himself, is a medical doctor. It is the least popular of the series, but it is also the shortest. Since author F. Paul Wilson is a medical doctor, the characterization is particularly good, and this helps the story immensely. Elements of this book figure in very strongly with Nightworld, and provide it with one of its most wrenching scenes, so skipping The Touch is not recommended.

Detail of Steve Crisp's
UK cover to The Keep
detail of Steve Crisp's UK cover to The Keep by F. Paul Wilson

To give some indication of just how complicated the combined Adversary Cycle and Repairman Jack series of 20 books -- known collectively as The Secret History of the World -- got, here is the chronological order of the books' events given at F. Paul Wilson's Official Repairman Jack website: The Keep, Reborn, The Tomb, Legacies, The Touch, Reprisal, Fatal Error, The Dark at the End, Nightworld -- and those include only the nine that I mentioned. Compare this order with the original publication order of the Adversary Cycle. Makes your head spin, doesn't it? If you undertake to read the entire series, prior research is advised.

Extended Endings | return to menu bar

Oh, snap!   Oh, snap!

There are at least three versions of the film THE KEEP. The most common one is that which is available on videotape, laserdisc, and premium cablecasts, but regular broadcast TV and non-premium cable broadcasts add about 3-and-a-half minutes to the end. Many of the same wits who told me that the 1984 THE KEEP LP does not exist also told me that the extended endings do not exist, and yet I saw the second-most reported extending ending myself, and I was eventually able to obtain the most commonly-reported extended ending on both audio and videotape.

I have something working in my favor that virtually none of the rest of Tangerine Dream fandom has: the working knowledge that these elusive items are not just rumors, but exist for a fact. With this approach, it is far easier to obtain something, because the alternative is not finding something because you don't even look for it. The cosmologist Martin Rees put it this way: "Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence."

edited magazine cover
from color magazine cover - STARBURST #58
picture from a magazine
from French magazine - l'Ecran Fantastique nr.45
official film still
color still - from Long Ending
official film still
B and W still - from Long Ending

In the more commonly reported extended ending, Glaeken floats around in a mist for awhile, Eva goes back into the keep and down into the cavern where Molasar had originally been imprisoned, walks past the energy pylons to around where her father obtained the talisman (something which is more noticeable in widescreen prints of the film), and finds Glaeken lying face down on the ground with smoke seeping into his back, whereupon she rolls him over and cups his face with her loving hand, which revives him, and we see Glaeken and Eva reflected in a pool of water -- indicating that since Glaeken now has a reflection, he has become human. The water's reflective surface is visible in the first and second pics above, while the fourth pic below is a close-up of an image on its surface.

screen capture from The More
Common Extended Ending
Eva walking down into the basement
screen capture from The More
Common Extended Ending
Eva walking past the energy pylons
screen capture from The More
Common Extended Ending
Glaeken opening his eyes, while Eva holds his face
screen capture from The More
Common Extended Ending
Glaeken and Eva reflected in the water of the rocky mountain pool

On pages 23 and 25 of Video Watchdog Special Edition #2 (1995/96), letter writer Vitaly Altoiz mentioned most of the content of this most commonly reported extended version of THE KEEP on his local San Antonio, Texas cable station, KRRT 11, on 11/27/94, as follows:
As mentioned earlier, the film ends with a freeze frame -- of Eva Cuzo [sic] walking away from <25> the Keep. The new version never bothers to stop the action. We see Alberta Watson stop, turn around and start walking towards the Keep! Through the series of long passages she makes her way deep inside. There she finds Glaeken's (Scott Glenn) lifeless body, who after defeating the evil Molasar was pulled into the Keep by the whirlwind of energy. Evan hugs Glaecen [sic] and he is revived by the power of her love. The film ends with the long shot of Glaecen [sic] and Eva embracing each other in the darkness.
Video Watchdog
Special Edition

#2 (1995/96)
cover to Video Watchdog Special Edition #2 (1995/96)

For the most part, this scene appears in the book. It would not be until fifteen years later, however, that the footage would become commonly available when it was uploaded to YouTube on May 14, 2007. And it would take subsequent extrapolation to determine that the embracing darkness mentioned by Vitaly Altoiz in Video Watchdog magazine was actually the rocky mountain pool and the wall behind it, both so darkly lit as to be unrecognizable.

In the YouTube footage, the final shot shows Eva on her knees, embracing Glaeken, whose legs are out before him, and a cave wall is discernable in back. I am assuming that in between the couple and the cave wall is the "rocky mountain pool" which is described on page 13 of the promotional The Keep Handbook of Production Information, which is part of THE KEEP presskit.

It is hard to make out exactly what is behind Glaeken and Eva in the YouTube video due to the murky quality of the image, but if you look at the right side of the frame, you will see a rhomboid and an inverted triangle of rock that together form a backwards C. This configuration of stone is also visible directly above the figures of Glaeken and Eva on the back of the Japanese movie program to THE KEEP, and on a French lobbycard. I have created blow-up enhancements of the rock formation that clearly demonstrate that they are indeed the same. To view them, place your cursor over any of the three images below:

a triptych of images that changes when you move your mouse over it
To see the highlighted areas, move your mouse over any image directly above

In the less commonly reported extended ending, Eva does not turn back to the keep, but Glaeken does. He retrieves Molasar's motionless body and then carries him down into the bottom of the keep. This is a version that I saw on TV in Providence, Rhode Island, and it is not on YouTube. Until a copy of this footage resurfaces, I think it is safe to assume that the same know-it-all upper echelon TD fanboys who claimed that the more common extended ending didn't exist and still insist that THE KEEP LP doesn't exist (because, after all, despite their superior faculties, they weren't able to find them) will continue to refute the existence of this less common extended ending.

UK vinyl LP (1983)
CD from The Snowman
1st CD (1987)
CD from The Snowman
Japanese CD (1984?)
CD from The Snowman
25th Anniversary CD (2008)
CD from The Snowman
Limited CD/DVD Set (2011)
CD from The Snowman
275k   488k

Accompanying both of these extended versions of the film is three and a half minutes more of Tangerine Dream music (the same three and a half minutes is in both of the broadcast TV versions), and it is the best stuff in the film. Basically, it is the end theme, an adaptation of "Walking in the Air (Theme from The Snowman)," by Howard Blake, originally written for the 1982 animated film of Raymond Briggs' 1978 children's book The Snowman, but in its extended version, there is a hard, nasty middle segment and a terrific interlude before the end. No version of this end theme appears on either TDI CD of THE KEEP soundtrack, and I suspect that it's not on the 1984 version, either, for two reasons: first, because it would've required licensing from Howard Blake's publishing company, and second, because "Walking in the Air (Theme from The Snowman)" would have looked really odd in the track listing of the album.

IMDb logo

There is mention made at IMDb (the Internet Movie Database) of another long ending with which I am unfamiliar:
A strangely edited version that appeared on Channel 39 in Houston, TX around 1989 had a scene where Glenn is telling Magda that it has been so long that he couldn't remember what he looked like anymore. That version ended with Glenn alive at the bottom of the gorge, wounded after his battle with Molasar, crawling to the stream there and seeing his reflection.
For the most part, this scene appears in the book. The gorge and stream mentioned here is outside the keep, underneath the bridge that connects the road to the keep, and it is not the same thing as the rocky mountain pool, which is in the bottom of the inside of the keep.

F. Paul Wilson
photo of author F. Paul Wilson

As part of an e-mail correspondence between myself and F. Paul Wilson which took place throughout much of 1998, Mr. Wilson described yet another extended version of THE KEEP in an e-mail dated June 8, 1998:
For the hell of it, I taped the ABC movie of the week version on its one and only showing, just to see what they'd cut (and see how they coud [sic] make an already incomprehensible film even less comprehensible). To my shock, the film didn't freeze frame on Magda [named "Eva" in the film] looking back into the keep, but had her turn around, climb into the depths, and bring Glaeken out.
If you ask me, the main problem with THE KEEP is that the fight scene between Glaeken and Molasar is way too short. There was supposed to be quite a bit of footage of the two duking it out, but the effects chief, Wally Veevers, died during post-production and Paramount refused to give Mann any more money to complete the effects that Veevers had been working on.

Blu-ray.com logo

For those reading this who are action movie fans, there is this post at the Blue-ray.com forum by one EricJ, posted 05-31-2009, 05:26 PM, which provides some details about a version wherein Glaeken and Molasar indeed get some screen time duking it out:
The "cut" ending, however, eventually showed up on network TV, and... it's a snore: After Scott Glenn ends up sucked back into his Final Battle, we get ten dialogue-free, explanation-free minutes of Glenn and the demon flying through dark Keep space and shooting lasers at each other, until Glenn barely wins his battle, the girl runs back to the castle, and finds Glenn's eerily smoking body.

And you thought '83 audiences couldn't understand the theatrical cut!
Missing Scenes | return to menu bar

The Keep Handbook
of Production
color publicity still - of Eva and Glaeken in Keep

There seem to be at least two other missing scenes from the book which were planned to have been included in the film until just before its theatrical release. One depicts Glaeken being attacked in his boat on the way from Greece to Romania, while the other shows Glaeken leaving Romania by boat with Eva and Dr. Cuza, presumably bound for Bucharest or Greece. The first is described in the following quote from page 13 of the promotional The Keep Handbook of Production Information, which was part of THE KEEP presskit:
The massive H stage at Shepperton, the silent stage, housed a rocky mountain pool beside which Eva finds the smoking body of Glaeken after his final battle with Molasar, the power which dominates the Keep; the wall of the Keep backed by mountain tops on which the battle is fought; the back of the village inn and its garden and the interior of the boat in which Glaeken is travelling to Roumania when he is attacked and nearly killed.
The second missing scene, wherein Glaeken leaves Romania by ship with Eva and her father, is represented by the following two images:

Leaving Romania
black & white pic of Glaeken, Eva, and Dr. Cuza in a boat
Leaving Romania
color pic of Glaeken, Eva, and Dr. Cuza in a boat, from Starfix Hors Serie n°3, April 1984

If anyone has a videotaped copy of the sequence where Glaeken carries Molasar, or the scene where he tells Eva that he couldn't remember what he looked like anymore, or the scene of Glaeken being attacked in a boat, or leaving with Eva and Dr. Cuza in a boat, please contact me. My e-mail address is scfeldman@juno.com. And please . . . if you do want to contact me, don't hesitate to do so!

Starfix Hors Serie
n°3 (April 1984)
cover to Starfix Hors Serie n°3 (april 84)

The following is a partial rough translation of portions of articles in the French magazine Starfix Hors Serie n°3 (april 84):
P.59: Alberta Watson (Eva Cuza) says: "We went to Spain to shoot the scene that was supposed to be the ending scene: I was leaving, with my father and the Glaeken, on a boat. But it is not in the final cut."

P.61: Scott Glenn says he hated the book, and so did Michael Mann!!! He also mentions, "Several stunts I had to do for the ending, but they no longer appear in the final version (of the movie). There was a lot of problems with the special effects on this movie. The man in charge, Wally Veevers, who did the effects on SUPERMAN, passed away after two weeks of post-production. Two thirds of the shots were no longer usable. Mann had to re-think it all, after the actors and crew had left. The look of the whole movie was in balance. Veevers was supposed to re-create all the different aspects of Molasar. We never succeeded in finding a good solution. I personally think the final Molasar kind of looks like the Michelin Man! Veevers kept saying he was able to supervise all that, but no one was able to take over from his projects. He had done no storyboard. Nobody was aware of what he was doing. See, these guys, they don't like to share their secrets. If they did, then they would not been so well-paid!"

Publicity Shot
color publicity still - of Eva and Glaeken in Keep

He also says, "Michael Mann was hesitating between two different endings. He was not sure whether the finale had to take place in the basement of the keep, in Molasar's lair, or in the heights, at the top of the dungeon. Finally, we kept the subterranean ending, but a shortened version of it, because of all the technical (physical?) problems. The second ending was more like an old Douglas Fairbanks movie. I was fighting with Molasar at the top of the tower. A huge laser ray then spouted up (gushed forth?) from the core of the keep, and took us two. We fall, the ground is opening itself (because of the ray) and we keep falling. We were then leaving space-time, a bit like in 2001, A SPACE ODYSSEY. I was hanging from wires (. . .). But Paramount did not agree to give us more money after Wally Veever's death, and would not let us finish what we had started to shoot. Because of that, three important scenes were never finished, just like that . . ."

Then, there is the Alex Thomson interview, where he says that several scenes (but he don't know exactly which ones) were reshot by Michael Mann, with another director of photography. He says that the original monster (?) was not working. He says that Mann was told to reduce the length of his movie. And he says that, after principal photography ended, Mann did not like the original monster, so he had it redone/rebuilt and he reshot it. And the entire film was originally running "three hours and a half!!!!"
Michael Mann overseeing The More
Common Extended Ending
Michael Mann overseeing the most common extended ending, from Starfix Hors Serie n°3, April 1984

The History of This Website | return to menu bar

Although I created this page on October 21, 1998, it only lasted for three years in its original form at http://members.spree.com/molasar before spree.com discontinued its free website service in 2001. (The final update of the spree.com version of Molasar's Homepage was uploaded on October 17, 2001.) I subsequently migrated to the free provider 0catch.com in 2001, but by then, my interests had changed, and I began to focus more on my Chang Cheh, the Godfather of the Kung Fu Film site, which is at http://changcheh.0catch.com, and my Androgyne Online site, which is at http://androgyne.0catch.com, so I only put up the introductory Keep page at http://thekeep.0catch.com.

In 2002, French movie make-up artist Stéphane Piter visited my Keep page and contacted me to request more information about THE KEEP, saying that he was going to create his own page for the film. In October 2003, Stéphane debuted the Keep site which is at http://www.the-keep.ath.cx/, at which point he e-mailed me again, expressing interest in the material that used to be on my site which I hadn't restored, whereupon I sent him the offline HTML files of all the magazine articles I had. Because of this, a fair amount of the material that appeared on Stéphane's site in its first year came from the old http://members.spree.com/molasar site. Stéphane's Keep website -- which is bilingual (in French and English) -- grew larger and larger and eventually surpassed my site in almost every way. And yet, our aims have been different from the start: I really just want a copy of the soundtrack LP or cassette, whereas Stéphane wants the film released to DVD and Blu-Ray in its correct aspect ratio (2.35:1) with bonus materials like documentaries, interviews, and commentary tracks, if not actual restored footage.

logo for Stephane Piter's Keep website

I resuscitated the Molasar Homepage in 2012 because of two historic occurrences: (1) Darkseid appeared as the main villain in the final (10th) season of the WB television series Smallville, originally broadcast September 24, 2010 – May 13, 2011, looking as much like Molasar as Darkseid since he appears out of smoke and has cracks visible on his body, and (2) F. Paul Wilson concluded his Secret History of the World series of books with the publication of the re-jiggered Nightworld on May 22, 2012. Fed up with being subtle and not ruffling anyone's feathers, I decided to name names in this version of the page, relating who had told me what and when, for good or ill, for the sake of posterity -- and to razz the Doubting Thomases and naysayers. Currently, Stéphane Piter's Keep site is dormant and has been since 2012 because he (1) has been focusing his attention on making a documentary on THE KEEP and (2) is annoyed at people swiping his files for use in unscrupulous endeavors.

On October 27, 2013, I did my annual search of The Internet Archive (Wikipedia description) via its Wayback Machine for the spree.com version of Molasar's Homepage, and was surprised to find six captures of the site listed from August 23, 1999 to April 18, 2001. Disappointingly (but also fortunately, lest they start to disappear due to robot exclusions or IP address blocking by subsequent domain owners), they are all the same: a page that I had last updated July 29, 1999 (which means I hadn't edited the page for 20 months). Prior to this -- as recently as 2012 -- I had *never* been able to access *any* spree.com Keep page via The Internet Archive, so October 2013 marks the first time I have been able to access a version of the spree.com Keep site via The Internet Archive. (Also cool is that my other old spree.com webpages -- including those for Kung Fu Movies, Japanese Animation, and UFOs & Metaphysics -- are also accessible there in at least one version, linked as they are to that Keep page.) | Compare the July 29, 1999 version with the October 17, 2001 version (the final update of the spree.com version).

logo for Stephane Piter's Keep website

As of October 2, 2014, Stéphane Piter's project, entitled A World War II Fairytale: the Making of Michael Mann's the Keep, is picking up steam and now has the following web locations online:

  • A World War II Fairytale: the Making of Michael Mann's the Keep Facebook page
  • The Keep | Home | The making of The Keep documentary

    Smallville's Darkseid
    Darkseid in the WB TV series Smallville
    Smallville's version of Darkseid
    Darkseid in the WB TV series Smallville
    The Smallville WB TV Series' interpretation of Darkseid
    Darkseid in the WB TV series Smallville

    Plea for a DVD of Michael Mann's The Keep | return to menu bar

    Since his contract with Paramount didn't allow him to have final say in the cut of his film, which went from an estimated 210 minutes to only 96 minutes, Michael Mann understandably has disowned THE KEEP and to date refuses to be involved in a DVD release. Would that Paramount would relent and let Mann restore the film, but even if they did, how much of the footage still exists? And then there is what happened with Thief, where Mann's Director's Cut is shorter than the original -- a case demonstrating that sometimes you should be careful what you wish for.

    It would be nice for the DVD (or Blu-ray) to have an Extras section with footage that remained incomplete because of special effects chief Wally Veever's death. A great example of a DVD with incomplete deleted scenes is Cube 2: Hypercube, where the extras include several scenes which interweave completed footage with green-screen areas. A lot of people think THE KEEP stinks because the adversary is knocked off too quickly. Including DVD extras that demonstrate how an entire end sequence (three whole scenes) fell to the wayside due to the FX chief taking his secrets with him would go far in redeeming the film.

    Hollywood Reporter online logo

    In the 09/22/2014 article, Legendary Newsman Mike Wallace "Detested" the 'The Insider,' Michael Mann Reveals, by Tim Appelo, The Hollywood Reporter's executive features editor, Stephen Galloway, talked to Mann on September 17, 2014 at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, as part of the second season of The Hollywood Masters interview series. Near the end of their exchange was the following:

    Galloway: Is there any one film you wish you could make again?

    Mann: Uh, probably The Keep. [Laughs.]

    Galloway: Which is a hard film to get to see.

    Mann: It's a hard film to get to —

    Galloway: Why?

    Mann: It was a script that wasn't quite ready, and, [a hard] script to schedule, because of how the picture was financed. And a key guy in the making of it, a man named Wally Veevers, who was a brill — wonderful, wonderful man, who was a very talented visual effects designer from 2001 all the way back to The Shape of Things to Come, tragically passed away, right there in the middle of our post-production. And, so it became for me, a film that was never completely, never completely realized.

    My Other Web Sites:
    Electronic Music | Chang Cheh, the Godfather of the Kung Fu Film | Androgyne Online

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    The Holographic Paradigm: What If the Universe Is a Hologram?
A Concise Explanation of New Age Metaphysics and How It Affects You

    Created 10/21/98. Final update of members.spree.com/molasar version on 10/17/01.
    Resurrected at thekeep.0catch.com 7/3/12-7/25/12. Last updated 10/16/14.
    Copyright © Steven Feldman, 2001, 2012, 2013 & 2014.